Orthogonal Complement Calculator

Find the basis of an orthogonal complement step by step

This calculator will find the basis of the orthogonal complement of the subspace spanned by the given vectors, with steps shown.

$$$\mathbf{\vec{v_{1}}}$$$ $$$\mathbf{\vec{v_{2}}}$$$

If the calculator did not compute something or you have identified an error, or you have a suggestion/feedback, please write it in the comments below.

Our Orthogonal Complement Calculator serves as an effective and robust resource for quickly computing the orthogonal complement of a given set of vectors or a matrix. All you need to do is input the respective coordinates of your vectors or the elements of your matrix. The calculator performs the computation instantly, producing the orthogonal complement subspace in a format that is easy to understand.

How to Use the Orthogonal Complement Calculator?

  • Input

    Input the coordinates of your vectors or the elements of your matrix in the appropriate fields.

  • Calculation

    Click on the "Calculate" button.

  • Result

    The calculator will instantly compute and display the orthogonal complement in a well-organized and easy-to-understand format.

What Is an Orthogonal Complement?

The orthogonal complement is an integral concept in linear algebra. Mathematically, if you have a vector space $$$V$$$ and a subspace $$$W$$$ within it, the orthogonal complement of $$$W$$$ in $$$V$$$, often denoted as $$$W^{\perp}$$$, comprises all vectors in $$$V$$$ that are orthogonal to every vector in $$$W$$$.

If $$$\mathbf{\vec{v}}$$$ is a vector in $$$V$$$ and $$$\mathbf{\vec{w}}$$$ is a vector in $$$W$$$, $$$\mathbf{\vec{v}}$$$ is orthogonal to $$$\mathbf{\vec{w}}$$$ if their dot product is zero. That is, $$$\mathbf{\vec{v}}\cdot\mathbf{\vec{w}}=0$$$. This is the defining characteristic of the orthogonal complement.

For example, consider $$$V$$$ in $$$\mathbb{R^3}$$$, and $$$W$$$ is the subspace spanned by the vector $$$\langle1,2,3\rangle$$$. The orthogonal complement $$$W^{\perp}$$$ includes all vectors in $$$\mathbb{R^3}$$$ that are orthogonal to $$$\langle1,2,3\rangle$$$. So any vector $$$\mathbf{\vec{v}}=\langle v_1,v_2,v_3\rangle$$$ in $$$W^{\perp}$$$ must satisfy:

$$\langle1,2,3\rangle\cdot\langle v_1,v_2,v_3\rangle=0$$



This equation characterizes all vectors in the orthogonal complement $$$W^{\perp}$$$.

The process of finding orthogonal complements is fundamental to many scientific and engineering disciplines, such as signal processing in physics and machine learning in computer science.

Why Choose Our Orthogonal Complement Calculator?

  • User-Friendly Interface

    The calculator features an intuitive, easy-to-navigate interface that makes it simple for users of all levels to input their data and receive immediate results.

  • Speed and Efficiency

    Our calculator processes complex computations instantly, providing quick and accurate results. No more tedious manual calculations or waiting for results.

  • High Accuracy

    The calculator uses advanced algorithms to ensure high precision in computations. You can trust it to provide correct results every time.

  • Versatility

    Whether you need to find the orthogonal complement of a set of vectors or a matrix, our calculator is equipped to handle them all.


What applications does the concept of orthogonal complement have?

Finding orthogonal complements is a fundamental concept with wide-ranging applications in several fields, including mathematics (for optimization problems), physics (in signal processing), computer science, and engineering (in machine learning and data analysis).

How accurate is the Orthogonal Complement Calculator?

Our calculator uses precise algorithms to find the orthogonal complement, ensuring a high level of accuracy in the results.

Can I use this calculator to find the orthogonal complement of a matrix?

Yes, our calculator is designed to compute the orthogonal complement of both a set of vectors and a matrix. Simply enter the rows of your matrix as vectors.

What is the orthogonal complement?

The orthogonal complement is a set or space of vectors that are perpendicular (orthogonal) to a given vector or subspace within a larger space. Essentially, if you have a subspace $$$W$$$ in a larger space $$$V$$$, the orthogonal complement of $$$W$$$ comprises all vectors in $$$V$$$ that are orthogonal to every vector in $$$W$$$.