Diagonalize Matrix Calculator

Diagonalize matrices step by step

The calculator will diagonalize the given matrix (if possible), with steps shown.

If the calculator did not compute something or you have identified an error, or you have a suggestion/feedback, please write it in the comments below.

The Diagonalize Matrix Calculator serves as an advanced instrument for performing matrix diagonalization, offering detailed, step-by-step solutions. More than just a computation tool, it makes it easier to understand the complex process of matrix diagonalization by explaining each step involved.

How to Use the Diagonalize Matrix Calculator?

  • Input

    Begin by entering your square matrix into the given fields and ensure the data is accurate.

  • Calculation

    Once your matrix is entered, click on the "Calculate" button. The calculator will instantly perform the matrix diagonalization, showing the result.

  • Result

    Carefully review both the result and the outlined steps to enhance your grasp on the complex matrix diagonalization process.

What Is the Definition of a Diagonal Matrix and What Are Its Properties?

A diagonal matrix is a special type of square matrix where all the entries outside the main diagonal are zero, and the entries on the main diagonal can be zero or any other number. The main diagonal of a matrix consists of elements from the top left to the bottom right (i.e., elements where the row number equals the column number).

In mathematical terms, the matrix $$$A=\left[a_{ij}\right]$$$ is diagonal if $$$a_{ij}=0$$$ when $$$i\ne j$$$.

An example of a diagonal matrix is $$$D=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}d_1&0&0\\0&d_2&0\\0&0&d_3\end{array}\right]$$$.

Properties of a Diagonal Matrix:

  • Addition and Subtraction: When adding or subtracting two diagonal matrices, the operation is performed element-wise on the diagonal elements.
  • Scalar Multiplication: When a diagonal matrix is multiplied by a scalar, each diagonal element of the matrix is multiplied by this scalar.
  • Matrix Multiplication: The product of two diagonal matrices is also a diagonal matrix. Each diagonal element is the product of corresponding diagonal elements in the multiplied matrices.
  • Identity Matrix: A special type of diagonal matrix, called the identity matrix, plays a similar role to the number $$$1$$$ in real number multiplication. The identity matrix has ones on the diagonal and zeros elsewhere.
  • Matrix Inverse: A diagonal matrix is invertible if all its diagonal elements are non-zero. The inverse of a diagonal matrix is a diagonal matrix with reciprocal elements on the diagonal.
  • Power of a Matrix: The power of a diagonal matrix (where the power is a positive integer) is a diagonal matrix, with each element being the corresponding power of the original matrix's elements.
  • Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors: The eigenvalues of a diagonal matrix are its diagonal elements, and the corresponding eigenvectors are the columns of the identity matrix.
  • Determinant: The determinant of a diagonal matrix is the product of its diagonal elements.

The Diagonalize Matrix Calculator can help you in diagonalizing a given square matrix.

How Does the Diagonalization Process Work?

The diagonalization process can be expressed with the following formula:


where $$$A$$$ is the original matrix, $$$P$$$ is the matrix formed by the eigenvectors of $$$A$$$, $$$D$$$ is the diagonal matrix formed by the eigenvalues of $$$A$$$, and $$$P^{-1}$$$ is the inverse of the matrix $$$P$$$.

Our matrix diagonalization calculator will find $$$P$$$ and $$$D$$$, showing the whole process.

For example, let's say we have a 2x2 matrix $$$A$$$:


Our calculator will carry out the following steps:

  • Calculate the eigenvalues $$$\left(\lambda\right)$$$: $$$\lambda^2-8\lambda+15=0$$$. The eigenvalues are $$$\lambda_1=3$$$ and $$$\lambda_2=5$$$.
  • Find the corresponding eigenvectors for each eigenvalue.
  • Form the matrix $$$P$$$ from the eigenvectors and the matrix $$$D$$$ from the eigenvalues.

Why Choose Our Diagonalize Matrix Calculator?

  • Detailed Explanations

    Besides performing the calculations, our calculator offers step-by-step solutions, assisting in understanding the process of matrix diagonalization.

  • Accuracy

    Our calculator ensures high precision in calculations, providing you with accurate results every time you use it.

  • Ease of Use

    The user interface is simple and straightforward, allowing you to diagonalize matrices with minimal effort.

  • Versatility

    The calculator can handle matrices of different sizes, from simple 2x2 matrices to higher-order ones.

  • Educational Value

    Our tool is designed not just for solving but also for learning. By providing explanations for each step, it aids in strengthening your understanding of the process of matrix diagonalization.


When is a matrix diagonalizable?

The matrix is diagonalizable if, for each eigenvalue, its algebraic multiplicity (the number of times the eigenvalue is a root of the characteristic polynomial) equals its geometric multiplicity (the number of eigenvectors associated with the eigenvalue). If all eigenvalues are distinct, the matrix is diagonalizable.

What are the properties of a diagonal matrix?

Some key properties include: ease of addition and subtraction, straightforward scalar and matrix multiplication, and simple computation of the matrix inverse if all diagonal elements are non-zero.

What is a diagonal matrix?

A diagonal matrix is a type of square matrix where all elements outside the main diagonal are zero. The entries on the main diagonal can be zero or any other number.